Berlin, Germany

This branch of philosophy deals with the principles of beauty and artistic taste and in general with the perception of it. In a further step it deals with the essence of art – the artwork, the artistic production, the experience and reception of art – as well as the meaning of art in social human world and the relationship between art and reality.

Vitalism  An often elusive doctrine, ultimately inspired by Aristotle, which holds that the phenomenon of life cannot be fully explained in purely material terms, but that it is something non-material in living organisms that differentiates them from inanimate bodies. Following the considerable advances in biological science in the 19th century, vitalists opposed the doctrine of “mechanism”, which claimed that the activities that characterize all living things can be accounted for in terms of physico-chemical processes. Such activities were understood as due to entelechies defined as autonomous, mind like, non-spatial entities that exercise control over the course of organic process.